Invisible and Fleeting – Journal 8/7/21

There’s a lot of media coming out lately that aligns with something I like to see: the extension of a chosen medium to make its artistic statement. When the very piece you’re engaging with has its presence be a part of its meaning, that really gets to me. I can’t usually get ahold of such a wealth of this type of art, but this last year has been a veritable cornucopia of content. Mostly depressing or dealing with sad themes, of course.

There is the vaporwave music kick I’ve been on, which uses the philosophy of hauntology and analog horror to imbue musak with a more overt sense of dread and unease. The audio itself sounds possessed by the dreams of mall rats from the 80’s. It’s fantastic.

Effervescent art streams hosted by musical artists once and once only.

The bringing back from the dead of old videos on YouTube.

And a weird right hook I’ve just stumbled across called Cruelty Squad. A game about a hyper an-cap future where you play as a hitman in a gig economy, and features an organ harvesting mechanic where you can sell people’s livers after you’ve eaten them. Pretty grim stuff. The thematics are underscored (or overscored) by PSX-era polygonal graphics and old-school Rainbow Six tactical gameplay, and wearing the skin of a “500 games for $10” disk. Ultra ugly textures and audio that make it almost hard to play at first.

Never taking a moment to explain themselves, these pieces of art are just waiting for someone to stumble across them, and imbue their own meaning.

As climate depression has been hitting me pretty hard this last week or so, seeing the clouds roll in and a light rain take hold has done wonders for my soul. I’ve been able to imbue my own meaning and thankfulness to the cooler air, and I’ve taken that to heart by taking my notebook out again and scribbling a bunch of lines before putting it away.

I have seen some movement here and there on my Redbubble shop which is really cool. First sale I made was from Australia, someone wanting a postcard of a Rainier shot of mine. So I’m a little over the moon.

I have also broken out the Helios 40-2 again. It’s like putting on an old jacket, how comfortable it is to have on the A7. And I’ve begun drawing out designs for an autofocus mount for it so I can throw it on the Pronto adapter and never have to turn its focus ring again. 3d printer is operable once more, so I’ll be able to manufacture a hook and bearing system with PLA and TPU. If this works out I’ll make a whole post for it and upload the files to Thingiverse or something. It’s not so much an undertaking as fighting Blender to make sure it doesn’t crash when I press a wrong button. And waiting for batteries for my calipers to arrive.

And speaking of that DIY ethic, I’ve now got my hands on an actual dual-Xeon server. I may be migrating this whole website at some point, but we’ll see how good with Linux I can get.

Let’s see… what else is there…

Halsey is releasing If I Can’t Have Love, I Want Power as an art house music film, and I’ll be at an IMAX theater provided that the COVID numbers here don’t skyrocket much further. If it’s as good as the pedigrees of it’s producers, then it should be a sight to behold and it’ll be an interesting piece of media within its chosen medium.

I think that’s all for now. I’m working on sorting my old poems and releasing them as relevant collections, but it’s slow going. I’m plugging right along with slow but consistent progress.

Thank you guys for reading, and as always

Consume Reality!

Radio Reality City!

Analog Alexandria – Journal 6/9/21

So here we are. Is it everything you expected it to be?

I almost died in a car crash yesterday. Someone jumped a median from the oncoming lanes and caught air in my direction. Thankfully, some kind of instinct took over and before I thought I saw it coming I was already swerved up onto the sidewalk to avoid it. Looking back, I must have been missed by inches. Judging by the aftermath when I sprang out after hitting my hazards and pulling over, the car was probably stolen and the guys that were in it took off in a different car that had been following them. After talking to the firefighters and police that showed up I doubt anything will come of it.

And that led to a very interesting evening where reality waved in and out, understanding just how fast that could have happened. Not exactly introspective about it, and somehow I’m managing to take it lightly. Woke up this morning with the Circle Jerks’ “I’m Alive” in my head despite not having heard that song in years.

Part of putting this here is that this is the only way to put it out there. With that withdrawl from Instagram, I’ve created a community Discord server at this link: mostly for chat regarding things here. Hopefully this can grow into something kinda neat but as of now no concrete plans for what it can become.

I’m also putting more stuff up on my Redbubble shop here for some prints. I’m realizing that if I’m going to be a working artist ever I need to establish presence where it matters. Which is here and there and everywhere that doesn’t drain my time.

Part of this latest redesign of the website is to redistribute old content in a healthier format. I want to organize all the old poems and older content into .epubs and .pdfs for free upload. I think that’s a valuable thing. If anyone has any ideas of software that’s useful for either automation or bookmaking in that way, please leave a comment.

You guys really are the best for sticking with this, if I have any readers here from 2015 feel free to let me know, as well. I think it’s super cool that anyone’s been around for that long here prodding me along. If you guys have any favorite posts or poems hit me up! I’d like to make a best of compilation of some kind.

I know the site itself looks threadbare, but that’s only because new infrastructure is being laid again.

Consume reality! Radio Reality City!

Chromatic Typewriter – Journal 6/5/21

“Last stop before Verisum, found this thing leaning up against a wall like it was waiting for me. Couldn’t figure out how to use it so I asked our guide to try it out ’cause I figure he’s seen one of two of these things. First trigger pull and those keys sang colors you wouldn’t believe you could ever see. Hasn’t left my side since.”

– A man wishing to remain anonymous.

If you’re a friend of mine you’ll have seen the Instagram page. I’m getting off that wagon after, what, 2 years of on and off use. Only ever used it for my art, so I figure why would I let Facebook have the pleasure of hosting my content? I have a whole ass website for that purpose, Discord for community, and texting for everything else.

That and the increasing radicalization over this last year has led to me solidifying some of my beliefs, and this move away back from Instagram to the website is one of those applications of theory.

So hi, hello, the world is a much different place. A lot worse in some ways, but a lot better in a couple of others, like me! Some things refined, some things distilled, and we’re coming out stronger. Remember Year V’s announcement? Yeah, I hope not. That began 2020.

We don’t measure that kind of time in RRC, though, so we can pick and choose as much as we want of what good has happened.

So as of right now, there is no plan for this website, and that’s the way it’s gotta be. And now that I’m out of options to be lazy when it comes to art, it’s time to properly foster the use of this outlet. The world is returning to newsletters and blogs, and I’m thanking my lucky stars that that era wasn’t one I missed out on. I caught it right on time.

Expect more, expect better. I’m glad I’ve seen a couple of regular visitors going through some of the old news segments and I think that’s pretty cool. I used to have a sizable following for a blog like this and if you’ve stuck around then you must be in for this surprise.

No more other platforms. No more leaving it up to YouTube compression or relying on the algorithm gods of Instagram. Fuck them.

We’re right here, right now, and it’s Year VI at Radio Reality City. I own this.

Consume Reality! Radio Reality City!

Python, 6 Rounds – Journal 12/9/19

The hiatus is over. Oh yeah, we’re back.

So, my payment method for registration here on wordpress ran out, and honestly money’s been tight. Been needing to spend it on things more important than, get this, domain registration. But damn it feels good to be back at the helm.

I need to make more time for art. I got rocked pretty hard a couple of months back when I got and lost my first contracted photography job that wasn’t something I supplied the paperwork for. I was briefly a newspaper photographer. Yessir I was! Took pictures, definitely was part of a professional team, definitely felt like I contributed to a team and was supported.

Except none of that was true except for the fact that I took pictures. Which, I did quite a lot. But only a couple of times. And two images were used.

Then after three weeks from hiring I was fired over email. Among other things, this was a very confusing period in my life. I wasn’t particularly upset over the firing as much as my experience at the paper. Without getting into details, I felt like I was quite without a paddle. It sucked.

But when I got that email, I was shook. Properly rattled. Imposter syndrome started to set in really hard, and I started to… not make things again. This was also a period of time where I lost out the opportunity for a promotion at my primary job. Morale was low. Income was fine but my ego was crushed, and my ego is like the one thing I can depend on for a lifeline.

It took me a month and a half to recover and start carrying my camera again. I normally have my camera on my hip everywhere I go.

In the period after my last journal, which was in July (god damn), I was still waiting on my IR chrome filter from Kolari Vision and I finally got it. More on that later. The point is, I have geared up pretty heavily. If you browse /p/, you’ll see all those gear threads, and one thing they love is a good bag. I got myself a massive drone hardcase backpack for all my needs. I’m pretty much set when it comes to packing out for a day of shooting. I went ahead and got my second Peak Design capture clip, and now along with my IR Chrome mounted to the A6300 I have been dual wielding my cameras when I’m out and about.

Oh yeah, let’s get back to that real quick, my IR CHROME arrived. After literally 6 months after paying for it this optical marvel finally got to my doorstep.

Oh yeah! Red leaves and dyed fabric!

Honestly this filter has to be one of the top three parts of my kit. Its effects are immediate and insanely cool. I gambled on a stylistic choice, and that gamble paid off hardcore, man.

September Los Angeles.

These photos have not been edited. The only thing I did was set custom while balances in camera. It’s pretty awesome. Nadine indulged me by getting me the KV-FL1, multispectral flash unit, so now I am armed with one of the most powerful flashes I’ve had my hands on. I’m prepared to get a custom filter holder 3d-printed and to get some UV and IR bandpass filters to mount to it. Boom! Invisible flash unit! That’s in the wings, but for now, I am fully decked with infrared flash equipment.

I haven’t done another wedding yet, but I have done a couple of couple shoots and I even have a boudoir shoot in my portfolio now. I’m not sure if/how I should handle posting those. Does my site need a NSFW section? It’s definitely not my main source of images, but I mean, I have no idea how to handle distribution if that’s the route I want to go.

I’ve been talking with my buddy again after a long time of being pretty no-contact with people through messaging. Part of that has been due to university and part of it has been my lack of will following my experience at the newspaper.

Also, sidebar, but I’ve been in Tacoma a lot more lately. Taking the rail in downtown. Exploring around the Foss Waterway. I just haven’t edited much of the photos I’ve taken since California, so there’s not a lot to post here. I pretty much immediately post straight to Instagram under @jake_thomas_shaw so if that’s your predilection then please check it out there. I’ve withdrawn from Facebook entirely, deleted Reddit, and the only social media I really interact with is Instagram.

This leads fantastically into talking about my paranoia regarding technology. If you feel compelled to take part in commodity fetishism, stay away from all of these ‘smart’ objects. Smartphones are a way of life, but nothing else has to be. Smart home objects, smart televisions, all that jazz, you need to stay away from. Or if you engage with it, please please please know how to anonymize yourself and reduce being tracked.

As I am more and more aware of the world I’ve been becoming increasingly knowledgeable in the habits of companies that produce all this stuff. All of the analytics they harvest, the details of peoples lives they steal and sell. If you’re taking part in this, play your part in private disobedience and tell those companies to fuck off.

Get adblockers, build pi-holes to connect to your routers, disconnect your smart TV from the internet, have your own cloud backups of your data, grab a VPN service you trust, use TOR, circumvent censorship, uphold the mission of LibGen, and buy as much open source technology as you possibly can.

You gotta want the knowledge to use the hardware properly.

Before the whole system comes down, my plan is to get into cybersecurity, and buy some land. I know that in a couple dozen years when nothing has been done about climate change I’m going to not want in an ecological social hell.

Bit of a downer note, apologies.

To that effect, I’m writing in Python now. It’s a good change and its opened up a whole part of my site specifically for technology. Go check out the source code for my hawkmoon program! I think it’s pretty sweet. Lot easier than drones’ proprietary coding methods.

All part of making a sanctuary. That’s why I’m building this place. Radio Reality City exists within and without. And we’re back from a break so there’s gonna be a lot of changes happening around here. There always are.

Welcome to the Season of Dawn.

Happy 20th Birthday!

Hey, it’s your birthday again! I’m sorry I can’t do more than this, in fact I wish I could be next to you today, of course. I love you so much and I’m thinking of how awesome you are.

Btw, I’m typing this on 3/14/18 to come out on 9/14/19. Man, that seems so far away, but we’ll get there.

Have fun, lovely.

Storm and Stress – Journal 7/28/19

A blog only seems to be a blog if you decide to use it every once in a while. Let’s roll the reel!

Another wedding down, this time again in Tacoma, and this time with an A7rii at my disposal. So I also had FE lenses, and made the most use of the G 28-70 and 90mm macro from Sony. I resisted the urge to take a Helios with me but I think I can next time. I’m way more comfortable with its quirks than other lenses at the moment.

I made use of flash more effectively than ever before, as it was a daylight-tuned indoor lighting affair. Which is hell on white balancing but hey, we can tough through it. I finally finally got the replacement hot mirror filter for the A6300, so I delegated it to having the 50mm f/1.8 mounted all night. Only to realize that no lights in the building put off infrared wavelengths, but hey! I got some good bursts with it.

Oh yeah, that was one thing about the A7rii that really told me it wasn’t for me, the buffer times are killer. Even on a high-speed SD with an extra row of pins, the cycle times were abysmal in a fast-paced environment. That’s what I get for using a portraiture camera as a main carry during an event, I suppose. That’s why the A9 exists.

That very week I was able to use the A7rii for a studio portraiture shoot, and that’s where it really shined. As I’m dipping my toes into portrait shooting, I’m realizing that those kinds of camera bodies are a little much for me and too much con for their megapixel pro.

I recently got hands-on with the Fujifilm GFX100, too, that 102 megapixel monster. It shows an unfortunate amount of detail, but in contrast to the A7rii, it can burst 5fps. BUUUUT the buffer on it is even longer after stressing out the sensor and processor that much. I have never shot with medium format, period. So this was a wicked opportunity to test the current hypercar-equivalent.

Fujifilm, when it comes to cameras, seems to really be vested in photography that simulates the film look, but having ALSO recently gotten hands on with some of the latest Leica stuff, I can say with confidence that Fujifilm is getting away from the physical design quirks in their higher level bodies that Leica is staying true to.

During the presentation for how to use the GFX, they went hard on describing the technical, Apple-like qualities they’ve infused their product with and why that makes it so much better than anything else before it. It’s almost like they don’t want people to know that the Phase One cameras exist, and outclass it if compared spec-to-spec.

Their whole point seems to be making the camera feel nice to use, but god damn did those Leicas feel so much better to shoot with.

Shooting with a Leica M feels way more satisfying than shooting with the GFX100, personally. The GFX100 just isn’t for me, and I knew that going in, but even having felt the resolving power of 102 megapixels, I’m honestly not vexed.

My perfect medium format mirrorless would also be a digital rangefinder, probably capped at 40 megapixels, and it would be made by Leica. But that would probably cost more than a GFX100 and that’s where Fuji gets ya.

Which is fine! Becauuuuseeee…

After 7 months of fighting for it, I finally earned my upgrade, the Sony A7iii has joined my arsenal.

I’ve only had it for a week, but comparing it to the A7rii and the Fujifilm, I think I made the right choice by getting the base A7iii and not going for another build/manufacturer at this time. Who knows what weird things I’ll add onto this one, anyways.

And the names have been swapped! The A6300 is now Drang, and the A7iii is now Sturm. A bit pedantic, but important to me!

So far the greatest parts of the A7iii are the IBIS, the dual card slots, and the eye-tracking. I haven’t even bothered with the touch screen, and I’ve actually turned it off because the joystick feels so much better to use.

With the stock 28-70mm f/3.5-5.6 I’ve been able to do just fine in pretty much every environment because the ISO grain on the A7iii handles itself EXTREMELY well. Incredible, coming from the A6300 (which I know had its share of heating issues).

Right! That’s where I’m at right now. Next is to actually use what I have in a field someplace. Fire investigation photography is alluring for my infrared camera, but I’m looking at more practical options for my visible light photography first. Let’s get crazy, but in a moment.

More weddings, more studios, more portraits. Onwards we go.

The city is moving, but things are changing.

Consume reality!

Radio Reality City!

We Are Dust – Journal 5/18/19

It’s been a weird couple of months. In between two different eras, Year Five is progressing nicely, with gear acquisition going smoothly and knowledge only ever building on the creative empires I’m trying to build. So much foundation but no walls, no windows, no doors, nothing on top of it yet.

More important things seem to happen every day.

Kolari Vision did an amazing job on my A6300, now technically an A6300i, but I’ve started to call it Sturm after the post-Renaissance artistic movement and Destiny 2 weapon set of Sturm and Drang. When I get an A7iii and a smallrig to match, I’ll have Storm and Stress in my hands.

Currently, most of my photography has been spent figuring out the quirks of infrared light and how it interacts with everything else. It has been a joy to find out what reflects infrared light and why.

Infrared light is an intense little thing to wrap your head around. There are really simple, subtle things that I can point my camera at and find that all along there was another wavelength of light to be found there. It’s actually become quite a Lovecraftian exercise. There’s an idea now that whenever I see something I know there’s more to it. It’s as simple as the black cotton in one of Nadine’s hijabs being bright red or magenta infrared, I just can’t see it without Sturm.

Here’s two shots from her recent senior portrait shoot comparing the effects of infrared. She’s getting two Bachelor’s Degrees in a little over a week!

Canon SL1, EF-S 55-250 f/4-5.6
Sturm, Helios 40-2

So, aside from the Helios being intensely obvious with itself, the color variety in infrared light is insane. There are some lenses that transmit better or worse, which is an interesting idea to go over.

Essentially, different lenses treat wavelengths of light differently depending on the elements used in the lens! The Helios 40-2 was a lens tested by Kolari Vision to see that infrared light didn’t outpace the visible light spectrum in it’s dispersion within lens elements. tl;dr: the Helios 40-2 treats all light the same, and bends it the same. Probably mostly thanks to the KMZ having made military optics, so I’ll chalk it up to Russian engineering on this one.

The SL1 shot beautifully for me not having much time with it between it and the 80D I had before the A6300. I hadn’t messed with it much before but aside from auto white balance, the SL1 came loaded with automatic color profiling. I haven’t had a lot of time to read about it, but that would be why any shots on the SL1 are noticeably more colorful and contrasty. For a computer it does a really good job with color variety. I’ll have it on hand while I don’t have another Sony camera to compliment the modded A6300.

Kolari Vision appears to have been backordered on the IR Chrome filters, due to high demand it looks like. I’ll be getting part of the third batch of filters anytime between a week ago and a week from now. So I’m excited to get it and slap it onto all of my lenses one at a time and see what it looks like. I also have a hot mirror filter I should be getting in the same box so I can make my 55mm diameter and lower lenses look normal. This, sadly, means that the Helios will never see only visible light on the A6300 ever again. Kind of a weird thought. Gouging out one eye to put a new one in its place that can only see in full spectrum.

Most of my day to day work, thankfully, is spent talking about cameras and drones and learning more and more about them every hour. It’s not exactly thrilling, nor applying what I know yet, but I’m learning to much and being able to teach others. I would call myself a consultant on the matter of drones and camera stuff. Hell, I’ve been and am being paid for it I should just throw it on my resume. As such, I haven’t found much time to spare for poetry OR photography. Lot of real life stuff happening right now.

One of which is that I got into University of Washington in Tacoma! Second try’s the charm, but I am now a husky. Which I would have never thought even in high school would have happened, and not for bad reasons, but because I was so flippant about college in high school. I mean, I still am, but now I know what to be flippant at, and that makes all the difference.

I got in. Now we wait for September and jump into it.

PLU, with Sturm, Helios 44-2, and Fotodiox Pronto.

I might take a photography class here, go to club there, but mostly the campus is gonna be about Tacoma and my broader exposure to the city now that I’ll have a real reason for being out there every day. I’ve been to Ruston, done North End, a little of Downtown, some Stadium, but I haven’t BEEN there. Not yet. But I will be, and that’s the exciting part.

More to make art of. More ways to make art. That’s really all I can ever ask for.

Also Xilent is releasing the follow up album to We Are Virtual, titled We Are Dust, set to drop on the 20th. Hopefully I can get my hands on that damn aerochrome filter by then!

Consume reality!

Radio Reality City!

Aerochrome, Pronto – Journal 3/17/18

Where to start, where to start?

It’s been a while. Last journal was actually pumped out back in November. That was before Nadine was back from Jordan and before more stuff got so fucked up. Fucked up does not equal bad things. Fucked up can mean the end of one thing and the beginning of another. It’s been five months since I’ve been able to speak my mind out here on Radio Reality City, so let’s take it from the top.

Further Radio Reality City canon is being refined, so the two of you who are actually sticking around for the short stories and the lore can rest assured that there is more in development every day. Honestly, it’s only getting cooler by the second, but unfortunately the day where I can share it is a far ways off.

Tonight I’m being reminded that Olympia was a long time ago, and my creative bursts since then have changed their manifestation.

If you’ve ever perused my archives here at RRC, you’ll notice that I commonly say I write to remember. Well, I write to preserve. I write to preserve times and places. Things I couldn’t get a picture of, that’s how this all started. Stories of ideas that I never thought I’d be able to look at with my own two eyes. But it’s being built up now with an upward spiral of technical knowledge around cameras and how they work.

Since I’m getting better at photography, I’ve barely written a poem in five months. My general way of expressing myself hasn’t changed, but I am devoting much less time to sitting with my notepad. While that is a rather sad thing to think about, the one avenue of creativity pretty much all but shutting off, I feel as though I have a certain amount of mastery that makes me happy.

In December I was a featured poet in Tacoma, at Honey at Alma Mater. Familiar faces were there, Nadine was there. She was featured, too, and so begins the surreality of other creative options I can now set my sights on.

Since you last saw me I was just getting into drones, but that’s been put on the backburner to focus solely on photography. I’ve got another couple of shoots under my belt, and more lenses than I really know what to do with. I now have a Sony 50mm f/1.8 for the sake of simplicity. The Helios is gorgeous but it’s difficult to work with in practical situations.

So let’s talk gear, then. One of my recent gets was the Fotodiox PRONTO autofocusing adapter. It’s a motorized adapter for manual SLR lenses, natively a Leica M-mount to Sony E. It is also arguably a direct clone of the Techart Pro adapter, that was patented first and sold first. I would have gotten the Techart if it was $129 less expensive, to be more in competition with the Fotodiox. People are review-bombing the PRONTO and slagging it off for existing, but whatever. It does exactly what I wanted it to for less money, in a solid brass and aluminum construction. So with the PRONTO, an M42 to M-mount adapter, and my Helios 44-2, I now have autofocused Helios shots. Which is fucking insanity. I thought it was possible, but was actually surprised when I found out I could make it happen, so I did.

Nadine in autofocused Helios 44-2.

I can’t use my Helios 40-2 (although that is the eventual goal here) because it’s too heavy for the motors on the PRONTO, so I have to hold the Helios and loosely grip my camera to make it work. I’ve gotten in contact with the Smallrig people (they make my camera cage and a bunch of professional cinema level cages equipment) to see if they have a lens support and rail system to support a moving lens. I have yet to find a solution.

Also had to dremmel off the front couple of millimeters around the front of my cage to get the PRONTO to work, so now I’m rocking that Metro: Exodus look on my camera. Works well with my Jupiter-11.

Oh yeah, I have a slick Jupiter-11 135mm f/4 now, also in M42 mount. I can’t get enough of these KMZ lenses.

For the ‘radio’ part of Radio Reality City, my recent photography interests have been found in infrared light. I have been struck with inspiration by Richard Mosse’s ‘The Enclave’, where he and a crew of guys took rolls of Aerochrome 1443 film out to the Congo and filmed the civil war happening there. Aerochrome is responsible for wicked pink foliage and super blue hues in infrared light, and I’ve found a company that recently released a filter that’ll make Aerochrome happen in digital cameras. Trick is, you have to have a full spectrum camera, that is: a camera that can see from 300nm to 1200nm, from the tip of ultraviolet light all the way through near-infrared light.

Naturally, I have already signed myself up to open up the Sony A6300 of mine to full spectrum. I have to send it in to get it worked on here within the week. Then after that will come some appropriate filters for use in infrared photography. I’m psyched. Kolari Vision are the opticians who are going to work on my camera, and I highly recommend you give them a looking at if you’re interested in things UV and IR.

A close friend of mine has independently discovered the wonders of ultraviolet strobes in studio photography, so there might be something cool happening there. We shall see!

That’s all for photography stuff. On the backend I’ve been chipping away at updates for the site and uploading my creative works to the cloud so I have them everywhere.

It has been a demanding couple of months here, guys. I don’t know if anyone else saw the tweet a few weeks ago where 2019 feels like season four of 2016. I resonate with that to a degree. Things are just the same but brand new. Well, almost.

Moving out, new car, actual school, and other stuff set to happen this year.

If any of my readers find themselves in Seattle, you may have heard that the Art Institutes of Seattle shut down without much warning aside from an email this month. Students were notified about two weeks ago that they had a month to see if anyone was going to purchase the school. No one did. So they had to shut down early.

I was almost one of the 650 students scrambling to see. I was being called daily by admissions staff, wanting me to come to orientation in January and all that. When I backed out (because over 20 Art Institutes campuses closed last year alone, and because I was paying attention to my surroundings), I was told by my admissions handler that he’s only seen one or two people out of fifty come back the next year after withdrawing their application. Well. Look how that turned out.

It’s really a shame that there’s no longer anything to go back to. It’s even rumored that faculty and students looted the place. The company that owns the Art Institutes no longer cares about the non-profit nature of art schools, clearly. If you’re reading this and going to an Art Institutes campus, take a look around, okay? Make sure things are okay.

With that being said, try two at UWT has been sent out. This time before the deadline, and this time with a better thought out essay and major. Cybersecurity is going to be the name of the game for school for me. I think it’s fitting, and hey I do enjoy programming. I’d love to learn more.

I am beat, you guys. I haven’t done much writing like this in so long I can feel it weighing down on my getting out this journal.

I will say that I can’t wait to start posting Aerochrome Helios shots. And that I’m going to be going on a trip this summer, which will give me so much to think about and make out out of. 2019 is a slow burn. Little victories every month. Nothing massive quite yet, but that’s okay. I’m doing well so far.

Thank you guys for sticking around. If the site looks messed up right now, don’t worry about it. I’m trying to do more of a portfolio thing with this whole endeavor, but I really want to keep these more personal parts in. Are these things mutually exclusive? I don’t even know that yet.

Consume reality!

Radio Reality City!

A Brief History of Optical Formulas in the Early 20th Century and Review of the Helios 40-2 Lens

Anyone diving through the nichiest camera lenses on the market is bound to have come across the Helios 44-2 at some point. Intrigued, they might find it and buy a version of it on eBay for $30 USD and receive it in the mail a month later from the Ukraine. Any further reading will reveal its initial posturing in the 1960’s, and a host of other M42 mount lenses able to purchase from the same anonymous seller. Not a whole lot outside of those modern details are available, however.

To be perfectly honest, it appears that even less is known about the 44-2’s younger brother, the Helios 40-2, and its history. Save for the fact that, like its older brother, it is a copy of the Carl Zeiss Biotar formula, which is mostly what the 44-2 is known for. The 44-2 is nearly ubiquitous, as it’s common, it’s cheap, and there are literally millions of them out there. What’s strange is that the actual history of why these lenses matter so much is lost or hitherto untranslated.

Carl Friedrich Gauss’s telescope lens assembly was the one that really opened the doors; the granddaddy of all modern lens designs known as the Gauss lens developed in the early 1800’s. For a century Gauss’s lens design was used in telescopes the world over, being used to take some of the first astrophotography through the barrel of telescopes at observatories, and eventually was modified and improved upon for the next 200 years (1). Through the late 1800’s, the Double Gauss lens design would be perfected in a raw, workable way. It took the original Gauss lens, and effectively multiplied the number of glass elements from a base 2 (in a Gauss lens) to a 4-element group before the end of the 1880’s. This 4-element formula was created to reduce chromatic aberrations over a large focal plane.

Chromatic aberration is a term for a color impurity that a lens might produce, as a result of a lens not accepting light rays properly. Poorly-built lenses with uneven glass surfaces relative to the next can amplify these impurities, so more complex systems of multiple lenses are slightly tougher to get working in the right order. While the effect of less impurity is immense, the task of lining up separate pieces of glass elements in, say, a 200mm telephoto lens can be even more immense.

The focal plane is the distance from a lens where all the rays of light coming through the glass line up as exact as they possibly can. This is measured normally as an f-number (otherwise known as aperture), where the lower the number, the thinner the focal plane (otherwise known as focus). When an f-number is low, the lens is considered wide open to light, and therefore the rays of light coming in would have to be at a certain position in order to be seen properly in the final exposure: they would have to be in focus. Any manual lens you can find in a store these days will allow you to control exactly where that focus, that focal plane, is. The tradeoff of this, is that when you have a maximum aperture of f/1.2, you can also accept much more light and blur the background more effectively. Therefore, these sub-f/2 lenses are quite a commodity in the photography world, as they can act in extremely low light situations and operate effectively when paired with the right camera. Focus and focal plane are also commonly called depth of field, to communicate the area of sharpness in the final exposure after the photo has been taken. Focus dictates where the focal plane is, and depth of field is the final product that results from tuning your focal plane and subjects.

Bokeh is a byproduct of having foreground subjects in focus; the blurry, swirly background of things out of focus that we’ll cover a bit later on.

Simply put, a 35mm f/1.2 lens will have a much sharper, shallower focus than a 35mm f/5.6. However, at f/5.6 on the same lens, more can be in focus, but you accept less light by closing the lens slightly. This is most easily seen on a manual/variable aperture lens where you can physically rotate the aperture blades in the lens and see it working.

What part of the Double Gauss design did in the process of reducing those aforementioned aberrations was introduce more elements and achieve a lower f-number, if designed properly.

In the 1840’s a man named Carl Zeiss was creating microscopes under his namesake company in Germany. Over the years the number of employees in his shop grew until the early 1880’s when his company became the entity we know now as Zeiss. An optical and medical technology corporation known for precision and accuracy in their products, at the time, their repertoire would grow considerably.

An employee at Carl Zeiss Jena, Paul Rudolph, is credited with developing the first lens that completely corrected for chromatic aberration and astigmatisms (when rays of light have different focal planes) in 1890: the Zeiss Protar lens. Impurities at the time were mostly a product of coating technology issues as well as the use of inferior glass composition. Up until the 1880’s it wasn’t known that aperture affected depth of field. And it wasn’t until the late 1880’s that a superior chemical formula for glass composition was discovered. Before 1890, nearly all lenses were created using soda lime glass, a rather primitive production process (melting the raw materials all together) and a molecular structure that had heavy optical impurities for photographic applications. You commonly find this kind of glass used for producing bottles or window panes. The advent of borosilicate barium oxide glass in the late 1880’s allowed for Rudolph to develop the Protar lens, cutting down the competition and setting up a chemical formula basis on which all modern lenses are now built upon.

If the Double-Gauss meniscus assembly was the shape and structure of the modern lens, the Protar formula was the chemical composition that rocketed the design to new heights.

Rudolph succeeded in creating the Zeiss Planar lens formula in 1896 (2). The Planar lens added 2 more elements, remaining symmetrical and giving faster apertures. Planar being the namesake for the use of two symmetrical flat glass elements; planes. This improvement manifested in the clarity of the image, and even less issues with astigmatisms. Lower dispersion meant less scattering of photons, which in turn meant less optical impurities. Zeiss was the premiere optics manufacturer in continental Europe and remains today to be among one of the best manufacturers of glass in the world. Silent films, large bellow-focus cameras, and moreover single-lens-reflex film cameras would see the use of lenses developed with Planar formulas for well into the 60’s.

After multiple attempts by Taylor-Hobson, an English optics manufacturer, to develop their own Planar type lens, they achieved the Lee Opic, with significant improvement over the planar formula. The objective of their project was to improve Zeiss’s Planar work in 1896 to further correct for chromatic aberration. Their work was ultimately commercially unsuccessful, and they attempted twice to improve the formula again, succeeding in releasing faster lenses under the ‘Speed Panchro’ and ‘Super Speed Panchro’ designs with as fast as an f/1.4 aperture (3). Even Kodak was trying to improve upon Taylor-Hobson’s designs and up the ante in the mid-1920’s camera market while Zeiss fell back onto another of Rudolph’s designs to use while they sorted out issues with the 6-element Planar design.

While having an inferior image quality, Paul Rudolph also developed the Tessar lens formula in 1902. It was a 4-element, asymmetrical group, that at the time capable of a maximum aperture of f/4.5; still leagues away from catching up with the Super Speed Panchro and losing the title of fastest lenses out there to Taylor-Hobson.

For the moment, the Planar lenses were left in the dust as far as the still photography market was concerned, remaining popular in cinema into the 1920’s. While still a very sharp lens design, they suffered flaring issues due to the convex nature of its outer glass elements and yet-undeveloped coating technology to deal with better dispersion and help with the flaring problems. Most would prefer using the Zeiss Tessar lenses, which were a newer, if slightly inferior, formula. After all, having so many pieces of glass between a source of light and a film strip will amplify any glare a few times over, if not dealt with properly. The Planar lenses drop out of favor for the next 30 years or so, after Taylor-Hobson’s dramatic improvements over the design. They would come back when lens coating technology took hold in the 1950’s, to finally solve their flaring issue, and allowed some of the fastest lenses in the world to be produced; the mythic Carl Zeiss Planar 50mm f/0.7, and for the medium format Hasselblad 2000 and 200 series, the Planar 110mm f/2 telephoto (4).

Before we move on to the advent of the Biotar line, it’s worth discussing the pedigree of Zeiss lenses in the mid-20th Century. The Zeiss Planar 50mm f/0.7 was developed for use by NASA in 1966. For NASA so the moon could be photographed in darkness, and Stanley Kubrick used them to shoot a scene of one of his films only lit by a candle (5). Zeiss kept one, NASA got six, and Kubrick got three. In both applications, it excelled. Only ten of the lenses were made, and if someone were interested in purchasing one, they would likely offer a fair price of $25,000,000 USD to start.

The Zeiss Biotar line had its rumblings in the early 1920’s while Taylor-Hobson was hard at work on their Panchro series. It was a revisiting to the original Double Gauss design by Zeiss’s optical engineers, at nearly the same time as another German lens manufacturer, Schneider. Schneider released their version two years before Zeiss struck, with their Xenon lens formula. Biotar, however, was developed independently, and both formulas arrived at the same conclusion. Instead of using a strictly symmetrical glass design, they determined that a 6-element lens with 3 wide outer elements could possibly fix their current issues with the Planar formula. In 1927, the Zeiss Biotar 50mm f/1.4 was developed for film cameras, and for still photography the Zeiss Biotar 58mm f/2 was released in 1936. It was the first widespread lens for 35mm single reflex cameras of the day, with primary benefits of the design being its weight and dramatic improvements over the Planar designs. It also showed that a 6-element lens was incredibly viable for the day. It was standard on multiple kits issued by Kine Exakta and Ikon, two of the first 35mm platforms (6). Users quickly noted its focus throw had the uncanny bokeh that is associated with those early designs, with the backgrounds at maximum aperture adopting a swirly, dream-like bokeh with an expectedly sharp depth of field in full focus.

Zeiss finally had a breakthrough in the competition with Taylor-Hobson with the 58mm f/2, and while Schneider lenses were a bit more popular overall, Zeiss was busy at work trying to introduce the Biotar improvements to the Planar formula. Before World War II breaks out on 1939, Zeiss also comes out with the Zeiss Biotar 75mm f/1.5. One of the fastest mid-telephoto lenses of its time.

It’s also worth noting that in the modern photography industry, Japan has a massive hold on the world market. Brands such as Canon, Nikon, Pentax, and Fujifilm all base out of the Pacific island nation. Those corporations had a market during this time, and their own technology rapidly accelerated after the 1930’s, but it wouldn’t be until after World War II that they would enter the global market.

Speaking of which, now with World War II now kicking up production all over Europe, a company in Russia had the distinct responsibility for military optical engineering and manufacturing under the same roof, as its tactical position near Moscow rendered it safer than other factories could ever be. This is where Helios is from, the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Works (KMZ) in Krasnogorsk, Russia (7). It exists today as a joint stock company, as it did back during the war, and is still responsible for the manufacturing of many steel and glass works.

In one of the most interesting moves the Soviets made during the war, as East Germany was occupied, they would steal the Biotar formula from a Zeiss factory. Taking it back home with them, the KMZ optical engineers found themselves with the latest in German optical advancements. One of the many gifts from the defense of their land.

The Biotar formula was a war prize.

While the KMZ developed all manner of scopes and recon equipment during conflict, when the war settled, they focused on cameras and their lens technology. Nikita Khrushchev at this time stressed production of consumer goods, so the KMZ had freedom to go after concept cameras, new lens designs, and creating their own versions of Lecia and Zeiss technologies for Russian citizens and beyond. These projects would find themselves under different names, but their production would all take place at the KMZ.

Zorki was one of these projects, being a copy of a Lecia rangefinder camera. After more research and development, the KMZ found itself being a titan of a plant, with their newfound projects flooding European markets. Zenitar (Zenit) cameras emerged from that 50’s and 60’s eras of looking for that hook in a civilian market (8). 1953 saw the first roll out of Zenit cameras, with sometime later the Jupiter lens designs. And in 1958, another one of their other European-based projects would finally be revealed to pair with the Zenit SLRs; the original Helios 44-2. The stolen Biotar formula, modified and put to work as an M42 mount lens.

From 1958 to 1999, the KMZ turned out untold amounts of the 44-2, earning it a place among the most mass-produced lenses in the world. This allowed it to dominate the marketplace for fast, inexpensive portrait lenses. Like its much older brother, the Zeiss Biotar 58mm f/2, the Helios 44-2 has a maximum aperture of f/2 and a focal length of 58mm. It was designed with a variable number of aperture blades and minimum apertures over time, but those two aspects above stay the same. One distinct practical difference between the two lenses was the characteristic softness of the Helios compared its much sharper Zeiss counterpart.

Bokeh is what the Helios 44-2 is known for these days, with the background developing an incredible swirl pattern, just enough to be tasteful and not enough to detract from the subject in the foreground. The bokeh and softness combined make photographs taken with it stick out considerably from a crowd, as the bokeh itself is easy to recognize.

While the Zeiss version was definitively sharper, the softness of the Helios was much preferred by users, escalating the dreamlike look exponentially while retaining great image quality. This is not to say the Helios is a flawless lens. Chromatic aberration is in spades, with color fringing quite noticeable at maximum aperture, and the focus was incredibly blurry outside of center metering. These two flaws combined may not have been terribly noticeable on black and white film, but on color the advantage was on Zeiss’s older Biotar lens.

Still, Zeiss had moved on from the Biotar formula by the time the Helios 44-2 was being produced, now focusing on the undertakings related to improving their older Planar formula and bringing it back to the stills market. Zeiss was also trying new designs like convex outer elements and telephoto zoom designs. So, if you had an SLR in the 60’s and were just looking for a lens to throw on it, the advantage was in KMZ’s favor.

That is the story of how Helios came to find a place in such a competitive time for the optics industry. By copying and modifying an existing lens design, they had arguably improved the Zeiss Biotar design, but laterally and in a linear fashion. It’s the same idea, not better or worse, but a different flavor of that original design, still standing 70 years later. So common that it’s even a good manual-focus alternative to many of the fast autofocus 50mm lenses out there today.

Given all that, what about the Helios 40-2? After all, that’s how we started this journey.

When Zeiss released the 75mm f/1.5 lens in 1939, they gave KMZ another European project to emulate and put a spin on, and that’s exactly what the Russians did.

In 1969, to add to their portfolio after multiple Jupiter lenses (based on the Planar design) and the success of the Helios 44-2 just a decade earlier, the Helios 40-2 was released. It surpassed the Biotar 75mm and went directly to a longer focal length of 85mm. The 40-2 was just as fast, being a maximum aperture of f/1.5. It was similar in most ways, except for a noticeable few that, like the 44-2 compared to the Biotar 58mm, modified an original design without positive or negative effects, with perhaps the most interesting note on its design is that instead of using their stolen Biotar formula, the 40-2 resulted from reverse-engineering the modifications to the original Planar formula developed by Rudolph (8). It was a Soviet Biotar, with the optical engineers of KMZ rebuilding the Biotar formula from the ground up, starting with the Planar formula. So really, the 40-2 is a KMZ retelling of the evolution of the Planar lens formula, not a true Biotar copy like the 44-2 is.

Considered the whole time, however, was the dual use of their optical products. Having a hand in military optics before, the Helios 40-2 was also positioned for use in oscilloscopes. Some have pointed to the KMZ’s dual-use manufacturing considerations as the reason for many flaws present in their lens designs, but I digress.

With the advent of their own true design, more effects were seen: soft vignetting, an extremely sharp depth of field that could make focusing difficult at times, a heavy weight, and even more pronounced bokeh than the 44-2. Any or all of these can be taken as a flaw, depending on your stance when it comes to the Helios lenses. In practicality, the user must be a bit more creative with their compositions, as the lens itself does not fare too well being at maximum aperture.

Due to the prevalence of the 44-2 and other mid-telephoto portrait lenses (most notably in the cheaper Jupiter line), the 40-2 didn’t do as well in a saturated market. Production of these lenses continued, enjoying little commercial success, but it wasn’t the beast from the east that the 44-2 was, nor the direct Zeiss copy the Jupiter 9 lens was. The Jupiter 9 and Helios 44-2 make the pair of the 60’s for Soviet camera enthusiasts (9).

You can find the 58mm f/2 Helios 44-2 out and about in the world, with upwards of eight million in production out there and Zenitar putting them in reproduction. It is the clear winner when it comes to the mid-century lens race. As a result, the 40-2 is much rarer to come across in the wild, and although its effects are more pronounced, it is unwieldy to use outside of a controlled studio environment.

I should clarify, not much information is known about these lenses in English, as many of the sources for which I’ve gathered information about the KMZ and Helios line are from Russian articles, archives, and community blogs (10). That’s for the history, and though we’ve discussed the 44-2, what about the 40-2 in use?

Zenit launched a reproduction of the Helios 40-2 out of the KMZ in 2015, and so for an import fee and around $500 USD, you can get a modern version of the original Russo-Biotar bokeh monster.

Helios 40-2 mounted on an A7ii.

I was able to order mine directly from Zenitar, and with it came a wonderful little box, a manual for use, and a bag with a strap that held the lens. I initially ordered an EF mount version but wanted to get an M42 version, so I could use my existing adapter that I have for my Helios 44-2 to my e-mount Sony Alpha 6300. The return was easy and processed almost immediately, and I had the M42 version in my hands less than a week later, ready to use. No qualms there. I should add that I also got a protection plan on the lens, just for safe keeping.

Much of it is the same as it was when it released, with only some aperture blade difference and updated coatings appearing on the 2015 version. The weight, the focus ring, aperture ring, and overall construction are the same as they were was 50 years ago.

I can tell the difference between the 40-2 and the 44-2 immediately because of the distinct effects of each, with the 40-2 of course making itself preset in the enhanced effects of the 44-2.

Cosmetically, the 40-2 is really strange-looking for a prime lens. To have the wider maximum aperture, the center of the barrel bulges considerably to make way for the aperture blades on the inside. It is quite long, and the front glass element is sunk into the metal to act as a small lens hood, similarly to the 44-2’s deep front element.

Since I mentioned the protection plan I purchased for it, it’s worth mentioning one moment where I almost used it in the two months I’ve owned it so far. To cut a moderately lengthy story short, it was pretty much hurled at a doorframe as hard as someone could force it with the palm of their hand. I could see exactly where it hit the doorframe: a bit of missing paint from the aperture ring. No other damage occurred. The 40-2 is a leviathan construct.

It is a heavy lens, weighing more than the body of my camera itself. Thankfully, the e-mount threads are hardy enough to handle the weight, and I often use a Peak Design camera clip to mount my camera on my belt when not in use. Even walking around all day in Seattle and Olympia with it, I didn’t fatigue from its weight in any way. I would say it’s pleasant to hold. It can take quite the hit because it’s built like a tank, and coupled with the Smallrig cage for my 6300, they make a fun pair to use.

The focus throw is the first thing I’ve seen criticized by others, as turning the focus ring from one meter to infinity takes three quarter turns of the left hand. It is not for shooting fast, it is for shooting with a very crisp depth of field with a very fast aperture. That doesn’t mean it is physically quick to set up an image to expose whatsoever. While I can easily walk on the street and take shots while moving with a Sony 18-135 OSS lens; the Helios 40-2 is much tougher to use in this application, for instance.

With this, we turn to the aperture locking ring, which is an interesting choice to keep intact on a modern version of the lens. If you wanted to shoot at, say, f/5.6, you would have an aperture ring to turn which would open and close the aperture blades mechanically. On the Helios 40-2 (like the 44-2), there also exists an aperture lock, where you have a variable ring from maximum aperture to minimum aperture that locks the aperture ring from going any further than a set minimum aperture. This exists so that if you needed to focus and shoot a photo in a lower aperture than f/1.5, you could lock the aperture ring at your desired shooting aperture, open to maximum to get focus, and then close it down to your set aperture once you’ve achieved focus. This was a quirk of manual focus SLRs, as the only way to get a good view of what you were shooting at was with a wide-open lens.

This is a very old school method of shooting, and like focusing already, means that taking shots with the 40-2 takes a considerable amount of time. Even on my A6300, with focus peaking, I notice the 40-2 being very temperamental with its depth of field. As with other fast lenses the extremely shallow depth of field, this thing can be tough to get focus. Because of this, I tend to shoot with my aperture lock at f/2.8.  

Speaking of focus, the Helios 40-2 has an insanely center-weighted focus. Outside of a circular zone in center frame, everything else drops out of focus drops off quickly when you’re shooting close to maximum aperture. I find aperture does best for overall focus above f/4.

Color is fantastic, with some very vivid color and juxtaposed muted contrast. This lens is more niche than anything else I’ve ever had my hands on. You can understand how this is made for portrait photography when you get it in your hands. The best photos I’ve gotten using the lens have been when I frame the subject like I’m taking a human portrait, so street photography with this lens devolves into architectural/environmental portraiture. Landscapes are bleak without a subject to center, but people are intensely easy to photograph with this lens.

This was the point that I stopped using the 40-2 on a crop sensor camera body.

I’ve had the pleasure of swapping it from my 1.5x crop ASP-C sensor Sony Alpha 6300 and seeing what it does on an Alpha 7 Mk. 2, a 35mm full-frame sensor. The good parts about the 40-2 shine, then, with the bokeh in all its glory and color quality becoming even better on a more adept image sensor. If you can help it, I would highly recommend pairing this lens to a full-frame sensor, as that’s what it’s designed for.

After writing the previous sections, I have since purchased an M42 to E-mount speedbooster, to bend back the light rays to be used on my crop sensor 6300. As my adapter now readily makes the 40-2 an APS-C lens and performs exactly like it was mounted on the A7ii. This has produced incredible results, and now with the 40-2 acting like it was designed to I feel so much better about including it in my kit.

To close, the Helios 40-2 is the byproduct of a war, on top of research of the early 1900’s best optical technicians. Somewhat forgotten, you would normally come across this lens being described with the 44-2 in relation to the Biotar design, but really all the lens formula does is achieve this uncanny bokeh. That’s what the Helios 40-2 is best at. It is not easy to get there, however. You get this lens, expect a fight, and the image is your payoff for winning.

In short, I love this thing. I consider it my showstopper, and it’s always in my kit whenever I’m out and about. It takes a lot of getting used to, don’t get me wrong, but once you do, the Helios 40-2 is a one-of-a-kind asset to have along for the strange situations it can open itself up to capture. It’s not the best for every situation, and indeed there are average environments where it struggles, and in a twist of fate, that’s part of the charm. The fact that the 40-2 is such a beast to work with makes the shots you do get that much more artful, and that much more worth it. You can get shots no one else can, in a way no one else can.

What sets apart the Helios 40-2 from any other lens is the unique, identifiable signature of its use. The bokeh, the handling, and its history all add up to what is truly an art. It will not be kind to you if you do not wise up to how to handle it best, for there is a definitive way to use it. I daresay it is like the

It’s going to be my favorite piece of glass for a very, very long time.


(1) Kingslake, Rudolf (1989). A History of the Photographic Lens. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0124086401, pp. 117–118.

(2) US Patent 583,336, Paul Rudolph, “Objective Glass”, issued May 25, 1897.

(3) The Taylor Hobson Story on Taylor Hobson official website Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

(4) U.S. Patent 2,019,985 issued Dec 26, 1930.

(5) Dr. J. Kämmerer “When is it advisable to improve the quality of camera lenses?” Excerpt from a lecture given during the Optics & Photography Symposium, Les Baux, 1979″ (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 12/10/2018.

(6) Herbert Keppler, “Inside Straight: Optical Miracle: The amazing story of the Biotar,” pp. 32–33. Popular Photography & Imaging, Volume 71 Number 5; May 2007. ISSN 1542-0337.

(7) Nogin P.A. “Photographic lens” Moscow, 1961.

(8) “GOI: LENS Catalog 1970. Part 1” Yakovlev A. f., D. Volosov.

 (9) V. A. Panov. “The Handbook of the Designer of Optical-Mechanical Instruments”, ed. 3, Leningrad, 1980.

(10) Helios 40-2 85/1.5: “Questions of ergonomics, operation and maintenance.”

Additional Sources not Cited

Volosov D.S. “Photographic Optics” ed. 2, Moscow, 1978.

“PHOTO-CINEMA-TECHNICS encyclopedia”, ed. Iofis E. A., Moscow, 1981.

“GOI: Catalog of LENSES 1971. Part 2” Yakovlev A. f., Volosov D.S. 

Slusarev G. G. “Calculation of optical systems”, Leningrad, 1975.

Rusinov M.M. “Technical Optics”, Leningrad, 1979.

“High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling”; Eds.: Thomas P. Seward III and Terese Vascott; The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 2005, ISBN 1-57498-225-7.

Lishnevskaya, E.B. Album “Photographic and projection lenses developed at GOI”, L., GOI, 1963.

Okatov M. A. “Technician’s Handbook for Optics”, St. Petersburg, 2004.

Sokolsky “Tolerances and Optical Image Quality”, Leningrad, 1989.

“Handbook for Cinema Operators” Cherkasov Yu.P. 2, Moscow, 1988.

Carl Zeiss SLR Lenses – Planar T* 1,4/50; [] retrieved 12/10/2018.

Zenit Camera Catalog, [] retrieved 12/10/2018.

“History of Shvabe Holdings”, translated from Russian,  [] retrieved 12/10/2018.

“Russian Lenses: Lens Group Helios”, translated from German,  [] retrieved 12/12/2018

Mechelhoff, Frank. “Early High-Intensity Lenses”, translated from German, [] retrieved 12/12/2018.

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